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Richard GonzalezRichard Gonzalez

Center Director, Research Center for Group Dynamics, Institute for Social Research
Director, BioSocial Methods Collaborative, RCGD
Amos N Tversky Collegiate Professor, Psychology and Statistics, LSA
Professor of Marketing, Stephen M Ross School of Business
Professor of Integrative Systems and Design, College of Engineering


E-mail: Email Richard Gonzalez
Address: Research Center for Group Dynamics
Institute for Social Research
University of Michigan
426 Thompson Street
Ann Arbor, Michigan 48106
Phone: 734-647-6785

Social cognition and the study of social behavior

Oct 4, 2023 | Psychology

Ickes, W. & Gonzalez, R. (1994). “Social” cognition and social cognition: From the subjective to the intersubjective. Small Group Research, 25, 294-315. 10.1177/1046496494252008 PDF


Proposes that there are 2 major paradigms for the study of social cognition. The 1st and most traditional paradigm relies on single-S designs, and is therefore limited to the study of subjective phenomena. It prescribes that Ss’ responses be kept independent, and treats any interdependence in these responses as a statistical nuisance. In contrast, the 2nd paradigm relies on dyadic and small group designs and addresses both subjective and intersubjective phenomena. It prescribes that the naturally occurring interdependence in the Ss’ responses be preserved and studied as an important set of phenomena in their own right. This 2nd, intersubjective paradigm may be especially conducive to the integration of research on social cognition with research on social interaction and group dynamics.